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Thus the word means universal loss of white blood cells. The universal part refers to both its worldwide distribution and to the fact that all species of cats are infected.
The feline panleukopenia virus is considered ubiquitous, meaning it is in virtually every place that is not regularly disinfected. The infection is highly contagious among unvaccinated cats.
Antibodies against FPLV, produced by the adaptive immune system , play an important role in the feline response to the virus. Maternally-derived antibodies MDA efficiently protect kittens from fatal infection.
This passively acquired immunity is later replaced by an active immune response obtained by vaccination or as a consequence of a natural infection.
Free-roaming cats are thought to be exposed to the virus during their first year of life. Those that develop a subclinical infection or survive acute illness mount a robust, long-lasting, protective immune response.
An infected cat sheds large amounts of virus in all body secretions including feces, vomit, urine, saliva, and mucus during the acute phase of illness.
It can continue to shed the virus for as long as 6 weeks after recovery. The virus can be carried or transferred on an infected object such as bedding, food dishes, fur or by other animals, fleas, and humans  see: fomites.
It persists long after evidence of the original body secretion has faded away, and can be transported long distances. Like all parvoviruses, FPLV is extremely resistant to inactivation and can survive for longer than one year in a suitable environment.
Infection occurs when the virus enters the body through the mouth or nose. Whether illness results or not depends on the immunity in the victim vs.
The clinical manifestations of FPLV are variable based on the dose of the virus, the age of the cat, potential breed predispositions, and prior immunity from maternal antibodies, previous exposure, or vaccination.
Clinical signs usually develop in 4—6 days after exposure, but can show in 2—14 days. Clinical laboratory findings include but are not limited to :  .
Other signs include: fever, loss of skin elasticity due to dehydration, abdominal pain, sternal recumbency with splayed legs and head droop, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis.
Infection in pregnant cats can result in fetal resorption , mummification, abortion, or stillbirth of neonates. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of FPLV can be made for kittens with appropriate signalment, history, clinical findings and the history of no prior vaccination.
The clinical diagnosis is usually supported by documenting parvovirus antigen in feces by ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR polymerase chain reaction assays.
The availability of validated assays varies by country but is becoming more common. These are only approved and licensed for detecting canine parvovirus , but it is generally known that they also detect FPL viral antigen in feline feces.
These tests are used extra-label because they allow rapid, inexpensive, in-house detection of the virus. In an unvaccinated cat, the presence of antibodies against FPV indicates that the cat either has the disease or has had the disease in the past.
In one study, cats with hypothermia, lethargy, and low body weight at the time of admission fared worse. A majority of infections are subclinical. In cats that do become ill, clinical signs include high fever, profound depression, and anorexia.
Many affected cats vomit, and some develop diarrhea. Only a minority have hemorrhagic diarrhea. Diagnosis is based on compatible clinical findings, including leukopenia, in an inadequately vaccinated kitten.
Fecal antigen detection kits intended for diagnosis of CPV enteritis can also be used to diagnose feline panleukopenia. The sensitivity is moderate, and specificity is high.
Treatment includes fluid, electrolyte, and glucose supplementation; antiemetic therapy; antibiotics; and anthelmintics. AVMA disease information sheet.
Also see pet health content regarding feline panleukopenia. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.
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Etiology, Transmission, and Pathogenesis. Clinical Findings. Treatment, Prevention, and Prognosis. Key Points. For More Information.
Test your knowledge. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease affecting a broad range of species. Naturally occurring infections can cause illnesses that range from an acute, highly fatal form to a less acute and less serious clinical illness that can also be fatal.
Which of the following species is most likely to develop acute fatal disease with anthrax infection? More Content. Typically based on clinical signs and leukopenia on a CBC.
Supportive care, prompt IV fluid treatment, and antibiotics are the primary treatments. Feline panleukopenia is a highly contagious, often fatal, viral disease of cats.
Excellent vaccines are available for prevention. CD is predominantly found on activated T cells and binds to OX40 ligand, causing T-cell stimulation, proliferation, activation, and apoptosis 3.
This leads to a significant drop in cells that have critical roles in the immune system. The primary mode of transmission is via deep bite wounds, in which the infected cat's saliva enters the other cat's tissues.
FIV may also be transmitted from pregnant females to their offspring in utero; however, this vertical transmission is considered to be relatively rare, based on the small number of FIV-infected kittens and adolescents.
Risk factors for infection include male sex, adulthood, and outdoor access. Higher rates of infection in males than females occurs due to biting being more frequently engaged in by males defending their territory.
The initial stage, or acute phase, is accompanied by mild symptoms such as lethargy , anorexia , fever , and lymphadenopathy.
Here the cat demonstrates no noticeable symptoms for a variable length of time. Some cats stay in this latent stage for only a few months, but for some it can last for years.
Factors that influence the length of the asymptomatic stage include the pathogenicity of the infecting virus and FIV subtype A—E , the age of the cat, and exposure to other pathogens.
Finally, the cat progresses into the final stage known as the feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome FAIDS stage , wherein the cat is extremely susceptible to secondary diseases that inevitably are the cause of death.
Veterinarians will check a cat's history, look for clinical signs, and possibly administer a blood test for FIV antibodies.
This testing identifies those cats that carry the FIV antibody but does not detect the actual virus. False positives occur when the cat carries the antibody which is harmless but does not carry the actual virus.
The most frequent occurrence of this is when kittens are tested after ingesting the antibodies from mother's milk, and when testing cats that have been previously vaccinated for FIV.
For this reason, neither kittens under eight weeks nor cats that have been previously vaccinated are tested. Kittens and young cats that test positive for the FIV antibody may test negative at a later time due to seroreversion , provided they have never been infected with FIV and have never been immunized with the FIV vaccine.
Cats that have been vaccinated will test positive for the FIV antibody for the rest of their lives owing to seroconversion , even though they are not infected.
Therefore, testing of strays or adopted cats is inconclusive, since it is impossible to know whether or not they have been vaccinated in the past.
For these reasons, a positive FIV antibody test by itself should never be used as a criterion for euthanasia. Tests can be performed in a vet's office with results in minutes, allowing for quick consultation.
Early detection helps maintain the cat's health and prevents spreading infection to other cats.